Menstrual irregularities - Deutsche Klinik Allianz


The normal female menstrual cycle is subject to regular processes under the control of the pituitary gland, which controls the hormonal activity of the ovaries. Under the influence of the hormones estradiol (an important estrogen of the body) and progesterone (the corpus luteum hormone) formed in them, in turn, regular regeneration of the uterine mucosa occurs, followed by bleeding at the end of the monthly cycle if pregnancy does not occur.

Violations of the regular menstrual cycle are manifested in irregularity, intensity, frequency of bleeding, as well as accompanying painful symptoms.


Menstrual disorders can be due to hormonal causes, but organic changes in the uterus, such as fibroids or polyps on the mucous membrane, can lead to such manifestations. In addition, the sensitive process of the monthly cycle can be influenced by factors such as severe overweight or underweight, internal diseases, external and internal stress factors, the use of hormones or hormone-containing drugs, and much more.

Eventually, the menstrual cycle loses its regularity due to the onset of menopause. Hormonal disturbances can also have an effect outside of the menstrual cycle itself controlled by sex hormones, as, for example, in cases of thyroid diseases or a painful increase in the level of the prolactin hormone in the mammary gland.

The risk of violations of the menstrual cycle are, along with a possible large loss of blood, primarily the causes of these violations themselves. For example, prolonged hormonal disturbances or the formation of significant body fat in combination with increased estrogen production can carry the risk of malignant changes in the uterine mucosa.

These malignant diseases may not least be expressed through changes, violations of the menstrual cycle, or through the resumption of this already seemingly long-forgotten phenomenon of menstruation. Thus, the resumption of the menstrual cycle after the onset of menopause is considered until the phenomenon of a malignant nature, until this suspicion is completely refuted.


Regular preventive examinations significantly reduce the risk of sudden oncological disease in a far advanced stage. If there are violations of the menstrual cycle, it is necessary to try to exclude by diagnostic means violations caused by diseases of any organs or caused by hormonal causes, and when they are diagnosed, an attempt should be made to treat them. Thus, it is very often possible to restore the general well-being of the patient.


More frequent, heavier, longer, or more painful periods, as well as irregular menstrual bleeding in the middle of a cycle, are usually cause for concern at first. But the absence or very long intervals between periods can be a sign of violations or, in certain situations, a sign of an upcoming joyful event.


Detailed reconstruction of the history of the development of the disease and the menstrual cycle, depending on the age factor. Hormonal diagnostics can play a supporting role or be necessary only in exceptional cases when indicated based on the results of the following types of examinations to determine the condition of the organs: ultrasound examination (ultrasound), microscopy and smear analysis.


Organic changes, such as polyps or fibroids, should be ruled out by ultrasound examination (ultrasound) or, if detected, treatment should be prescribed.

The most common methods of treatment today are minimally invasive endoscopic operations, that is, with minimal penetration into the human body, such as laparoscopy of the abdomen or uterus.

Various hormonal disorders can be addressed through pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions aimed at the menstrual cycle. In this regard, therapies such as naturopathy, acupuncture and diets also deserve attention.

Very common in women, anemia caused by too frequent and / or heavy menstrual bleeding manifests itself in the form of decreased performance, fatigue, impaired concentration and poor sleep. Along with the elimination of the causes of the disease, it is necessary to consistently replenish the body's reserves with iron preparations over many weeks.

Especially in those situations where cancer as the cause of manifestations cannot be excluded, it is necessary to make a definitive diagnosis as soon as possible. And then, contrary to the prevailing opinion: “Now it’s still too late!”, thanks to proper diagnosis, it is possible to carry out timely, sparing and – often – organ-preserving treatment, which most likely guarantees recovery.