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Respiratory disturbance during sleep with more than 10 breath stops per hour, associated with a drop in the oxygen content in the blood and with an awakening reaction.

As a result, fatigue during the day, impaired concentration and - over time - the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases are observed.

Causes

In most cases, the reason for this is the narrowing (obstruction) of the pharyngeal space caused by a decrease in muscle tone during sleep, descending to the larynx, often accompanied by snoring, up to the complete obstruction of the airways for the inhaled air.

In rare cases, the regulation of the respiratory function by the brain is completely turned off, and the so-called periodic breathing appears. This disease affects 2-3% of the population, mainly men over 60 years of age.

risk factors in this case, they are overweight, drinking alcohol in the evenings, an enlarged soft palate to a very large size, lower jaw falling back in sleep, disturbed nasal breathing, a short neck, hereditary predisposition, diseases such as reduced thyroid function, heart failure, regular intake certain medications, such as beta-blockers, sleeping pills.

The risk of the disease lies in the violation of the depth of sleep, which can lead to a feeling of constant fatigue during the day, second sleep, weakening of concentration, impotence, high blood pressure and diseases of the cardiovascular system.

Prevention

As a preventive measure, body weight should be normalized and alcohol consumption should be limited. It helps to improve the situation by the optimal position of the head during sleep and the mode when going to bed occurs at the same time and under optimal conditions.

Symptoms

Feeling tired during the day, drowsiness, snoring (most common), noticed by the "other half" of holding the breath during the night.

Diagnostics

Whether we are talking about a violation of respiratory activity in a dream, you can find out through an outpatient screening examination. A small device is connected by the patient at home independently. In the presence of respiratory pauses, it is necessary to spend the night with appropriate studies in the sleep laboratory. With the help of a variety of cables, all important indicators are measured here during sleep. On their basis, the doctor will be able to make a final diagnosis. Such a study in a dream lasts, as a rule, 5-7 hours.

Treatment

In addition to supportive surgical measures, this disease is also treated with CPAP continuous positive pressure ventilation (CPAP). With the help of a device, which consists of a nose mask and a small compressor, a constant pressure (5-15 mbar) is maintained in the airways. The pressure level for a particular patient is set during another night spent in the sleep lab.

Professor, Doctor of Medical Sciences
Head of the Otolaryngology Clinic
Professor, Doctor of Medical Sciences
Head of the Otolaryngology Clinic
Professor, Doctor of Medical Sciences
Head of the Clinic of Maxillofacial Surgery
Doctor of Medical Sciences
Head of the Otolaryngology Clinic
Professor, Doctor of Medical Sciences
Head of the Otolaryngology Clinic
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