Malignant tumors of the cervix, as a rule, come from the squamous epithelium of the mucosa that lines the cervical canal in the area of the uterine os. Tissue degeneration is a gradual process that can take years and is usually preceded by various precancerous conditions.

A tumor of the cervix at the beginning of its growth is usually limited to a narrow area on the surface of the cervix. If the tumor is not detected in time, it can spread further to the surface of the neck, and also penetrate into the underlying tissues. Also, the tumor can move to the vagina and body of the uterus, and ultimately affect the bladder, rectum, and other organs and tissues of the abdominal cavity.

When the surrounding lymphatic vessels are affected, cancer cells enter the lymph nodes of the small pelvis through the lymphatic pathways and form metastases. Rarely, cancer cells enter the blood vessels and travel through the bloodstream to more distant organs (such as the lungs, liver, or bones). There they can "settle" and multiply again, forming metastases. With late-detected tumors of the uterus, which are already in an advanced stage during the first treatment, a relapse of the disease may occur a long time after treatment. This means that, depending on the type of therapy given, the tumor may reappear in the uterus, as well as in other parts of the body (recurrence).

Doctor of Medical Sciences
Head of the Clinic of Complex Oncology
Professor, MD, PhD
Head of the Clinic of Oncology, Hematology and Palliative Medicine
Professor, MD, PhD
Head of the Clinic of Gastroenterology and Internal Diseases
Professor, MD, PhD
Head of the Clinic for General and Visceral Surgery
Professor, MD, PhD
Head of the Clinic for General, Visceral, Thoracic and Endocrine Surgery
Professor, MD, PhD
Head of the Clinic for Radiation Therapy and Radiological Oncology