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There are the following stages of the tumor:

– Non-infiltrating / non-invasive, superficial carcinomas

  • pTa non-invasive to the muscle layer, means mucosal-limited carcinoma
  • pTis carcinoma in situ
  • pT1 tumor extension to submucosal connective tissue

– Infiltrating / invasive carcinomas:

  • pT2 extension to the muscle layer
  • pT3 spread through the muscle layer outward
  • pT4 extension to the pelvic organs (prostate, cervix, etc.)
  • pN1 single metastases in the lymph nodes of the small pelvis
  • pN2 multiple metastases in the pelvic lymph nodes
  • pN3 lymph node metastases in the area of the common iliac artery
  • NX regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed
  • N0 regional lymph nodes are not affected
  • MX distant metastases cannot be assessed
  • M0 no distant metastases
  • M1 presence of distant metastases
Professor, Doctor of Medical Sciences
Head of Urology Clinic
Professor, Doctor of Medical Sciences
Head of Urology Clinic
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