An important role in the occurrence of hemorrhoids is played by the nature of defecation. Many studies have established a clear relationship between chronic constipation (obstipation) and hemorrhoids. Premature and excessive contraction of the abdominal muscles during bowel movements and a small amount of excreted feces cause increased tension of the hemorrhoidal plexus during bowel movements.

Malnutrition with insufficient amounts of dietary fiber can also be responsible for the occurrence of hemorrhoids.

A 2005 French study of more than 2,000 patients cited spicy foods, recent acute constipation, increased alcohol consumption, and physical exertion as risk factors for developing hemorrhoids. But overweight, according to the results of this study, was not included in the number of risk factors. And stress even showed a protective effect.

Often, a hereditary predisposition in the form of congenital connective tissue dysplasia is given as a possible cause of hemorrhoids. However, there are currently no statistical studies in this regard (as of March 2012).

A very controversial point is the effect of pregnancy on the occurrence of hemorrhoids. Although statistical studies in this aspect have not yet been conducted. A number of proctologists doubt the correctness of the diagnosis and suggest a possible misdiagnosis of hemorrhoids in the presence of skin folds near the anus (mariscos). In addition, for most women, after a few weeks after giving birth, the symptoms of "hemorrhoids" disappear without any treatment.

Definition and listing of types/complexity of hemorrhoids

I degree - Hemorrhoids of the 1st degree can be observed in the form of a slightly swollen choroid plexus only with endoscopy of the rectum.

II degree – With hemorrhoids of the 2nd degree, during bowel movement and possible straining, hemorrhoids protrude from the anus, but then spontaneously retract back.

III degree - With hemorrhoids of the 3rd degree, hemorrhoids no longer retract on their own, they have to be set into the anus with the help of fingers.

IV degree - With hemorrhoids of the 4th degree, it is no longer possible to set the hemorrhoids into the anus.

Doctor of Medical Sciences
Head of the Clinic for General, Visceral and Minimally Invasive Surgery
Professor, MD, PhD
Head of the Clinic for General, Visceral, Thoracic and Endocrine Surgery
Professor, MD, PhD
Head of the Clinic for General and Visceral Surgery
Professor, MD, PhD
Head of the Clinic of Gastroenterology and Internal Diseases