Most breast tumors (about half) occur in women in the upper outer region, about 15 % in the upper inner region. In this case, the left mammary gland is affected more often than the right. In the initial stage, as a rule, breast cancer does not cause any pain or other complaints. The more attentive women should be to certain signs that may indicate a possible cancer. If the disease is already advanced, there may be symptoms that cause metastases, such as bone pain, difficulty breathing, or weight loss.

Seals in the mammary gland
The nodes can be palpated only from a size of about 1-2 cm - depending on their location (directly under the skin or deeper), on the density of the gland (nodular or not nodular) and on the size of the mammary glands. They are non-displaceable, firm to the touch, and usually painless.

Changes in the nipple area
For the first time, local retractions or retraction of the entire nipple are also an alarm signal, along with inflammation and skin changes or discharge from the nipple, especially if they are bloody or transparent and are observed only on one side.

Changes in the size of the breast
In most women, the mammary glands vary in size. If, nevertheless, the difference in size appeared for the first time and if the skin is retracted in any place, this is a reason to consult a doctor. Also, the different position of the mammary glands with arms raised up should be clarified during the examination.

Features of the skin
Skin indrawings and other suspicious skin changes (coarse porosity, "orange peel") are possible signs of breast cancer, as are persistent redness and inflammation.

Swelling in the armpit
The detection of swelling and seals in the armpit may indicate metastases to the lymph nodes.

Doctor of Medical Sciences
Head of the Clinic of Complex Oncology
Professor, MD, PhD
Head of the Clinic of Oncology, Hematology and Palliative Medicine
Professor, MD, PhD
Head of the Clinic of Gastroenterology and Internal Diseases
Professor, MD, PhD
Head of the Clinic for General and Visceral Surgery
Professor, MD, PhD
Head of the Clinic for General, Visceral, Thoracic and Endocrine Surgery
Professor, MD, PhD
Head of the Clinic for Radiation Therapy and Radiological Oncology