The use of alcohol and tobacco is the most important risk factor for this disease.
In fact, there is a direct relationship between the likelihood of developing cancer of the larynx and the intensity and duration of tobacco use. On the contrary, the damaging effect of alcohol (ethyl alcohol) has not been definitely proven. The risk of developing supraglottic (located above the vocal cords) cancer of the larynx increases if patients, in addition to smoking, abuse alcohol (have an alcohol dependence). Apparently, alcohol enhances the action of carcinogens. In this regard, direct damage to the mucous membrane of the larynx, a violation of the synthesis of immunoglobulin A, and a lack of riboflavin are discussed. On the other hand, alcohol abuse (alcohol-toxic consequences) can contribute to the spread of cancer (cancerization process) and even accelerate it.
In total, tumors of the larynx are divided into:
- supraglottic (located above the vocal cords),
- ligamentous (located on the vocal cords)
- subglottic (located under the vocal cords).
According to current scientific data, tobacco smoking is the only risk factor for isolated cancer of the vocal folds. In total, more than 65% malignant tumors of the larynx in the vocal cord region occur in German-speaking countries. More than 30% cases are supraglottic carcinomas, while subglottic carcinomas are much rarer and account for less than 1%.
On the contrary, carcinomas of the oral cavity and pharynx appear much less frequently. Compared to 1985, morbidity as well as mortality from pharyngeal cancer has increased by gender. And the data for cancer of the larynx remained the same. The probability of developing cancer of the pharynx is especially high in the 7th decade of life. Compared to this, the risk of developing cancer of the mouth and larynx is highest in the 6th decade. In both types of cancer, it is seen that the risk of the disease is shifting to an ever earlier age.
From the direct relationship between the development of malignant tumors in the upper respiratory and digestive tract and the consumption of alcohol and / or tobacco, it follows that each can contribute to reducing the risk of cancer. At the same time, it should be noted that the risk of a disease of someone who once abused alcohol and / or tobacco only after 10-15 years will reach the risk level of someone who has never used alcohol or tobacco.
Head of the Clinic of Complex Oncology
Head of the Clinic of Oncology, Hematology and Palliative Medicine
Head of the Clinic of Gastroenterology and Internal Diseases
Head of the Clinic for General and Visceral Surgery
Head of the Clinic for General, Visceral, Thoracic and Endocrine Surgery
Head of the Clinic for Radiation Therapy and Radiological Oncology