Urinary stones are crystalline formations that can interfere with urination, that is, the movement of urine from the kidney to the bladder, cause painful manifestations (colic) and contribute to the development of recurrent urinary tract infections.
Urinary stones occur in the kidney or bladder. Their size ranges from the size of fine sand to large coral stones. The majority of all urinary stones are composed of calcium oxalate. Other components include uric acid, cystine, and calcium phosphate. The insoluble salts contained in the urine form into stones. The reason for the formation of these salts can be metabolic disorders (diseases), insufficient fluid intake, lack of physical activity, unbalanced nutrition, and diseases of the urinary system.
A significant increase in the number of diseases in the last 30 years is associated with an increase in the standard of living of people. In 2000, there were 1.2 million people in Germany suffering from urolithiasis. Men get sick twice as often as women. Many patients experience recurrence of urinary stones.
Fluid intake of 2.5 - 3 liters per day ensures a low concentration of urine and thus prevents the risk of urinary stones. It is necessary to monitor the uniform intake of fluid throughout the day.
Recommendations for a special diet can only be given after the composition of the urinary stones of a particular patient has been clarified.
The spectrum of complaints ranges from mild nagging pain in the side to severe renal colic with nausea and vomiting. Stones in the lower urinary tract often cause pain that radiates to the scrotum in men or, respectively, to the labia in women. You should be afraid of an infection that may occur due to accumulated urine on top of a urinary stone. In this case, a fast response is shown.
Urinalysis often reveals microscopic traces of blood. Ultrasound examination (ultrasound) can reveal stagnation of urine in the examined kidney. X-ray examination allows you to fix the stones in the urinary system in the picture. Alternatively, computed tomography (CT) may be done.
80% of all stones come out on their own without special measures. In such cases, first of all, analgesic treatment is indicated. Sufficient drinking, intense physical activity and hot baths contribute to the release of stones. In acute colic, it is necessary to use intravenous painkillers and drugs that relieve spasms.
If an infection of the urinary system is detected as a result of stagnation of urine, it is urgent to take measures to save the affected kidney. The outflow of urine from the corresponding side is provided by temporary drainage.
If the urinary stone does not come out on its own, modern medicine has at its disposal an effective method of crushing the stone with electromagnetic waves, as well as minimally invasive surgical methods of treatment.