Inflammatory disease of the lower urinary tract caused by bacteria.
In the case of an uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women, colloquially called inflammation or catarrh of the bladder (cystitis), we are talking about a frequently occurring disease that affects an average of one in five women. Women, compared to men, have a very short urethra (urethra), about 3 cm, which is one of the reasons for the easy penetration of bacteria into the bladder. This disease usually affects women who are of the age of sexual activity and older women after the onset of menopause (due to lack of estrogen). This infection is known (in the Western world) as the honeymoon infection, as it often develops immediately after intercourse.
We are talking about an uncomplicated urinary tract infection if the factors contributing to the development of inflammation are excluded and the ureters and kidneys are not involved. Otherwise, we are talking about an infection aggravated by complications, requiring longer treatment and, if the causes have not yet been clarified, in their identification.
- a sufficient amount of fluid consumed per day (about 2 liters);
- avoiding hypothermia, for example, due to wet beachwear;
- emptying the bladder after intercourse;
- fruit juices (lingonberry, cranberry) and preparations that create or maintain an acidic urine environment necessary to prevent possible infections.
- from a slight burning sensation when urinating to an uncontrollable urge to urinate;
- short intervals between emptying of the bladder with ever-decreasing amount of urine;
- pain and fever;
- often the presence of blood in the urine.
Urinalysis by express method reveals the presence of leukocytes (cells of the inflammatory process), as well as bacteria. To identify the bacteria that caused the inflammation, a bacterial study is performed (urine culture). After that, it is possible to test the identified type of bacteria for various antibiotics in order to determine the strategy of drug treatment. The kidneys and bladder are examined by means of an ultrasound examination (ultrasound).
Pain in the lower abdomen, which is in the nature of spasms, can be relieved by thermal procedures. Inflammation of the bladder caused by bacteria needs to be treated with antibiotics for 3 days. The process of treating upper urinary tract infections involves a longer period.