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Glaucoma is an eye disease in which intraocular pressure increases. This increased pressure causes damage to the eye.

There are two ways to prevent irreversible changes:

  1. Recognition of the disease in the early stages by an ophthalmologist.
  2. Exact adherence by the patient to the prescriptions of the doctor.

Causes

Increased intraocular pressure is caused by inside large amount of fluid (aqueous moisture) collects in the eye. In a healthy eye, there is an adjusted balance between the formation and outflow of intraocular fluid. If the outflow of intraocular fluid is disturbed, its excess is formed inside the eye and, as a result, intraocular pressure rises. This condition: "too much intraocular fluid" is called glaucoma. Increased intraocular pressure damages important parts of the optic nerve. With each destroyed nerve fiber, visual functions deteriorate. Thus, the deteriorating quality of vision can be attributed to the most common first signs of glaucoma.

But this fact should not be considered as a rule, since there are a number of possibilities detection of glaucoma in the early stages the moment when irreversible damage is done to vision.

Prevention

With established indications of increased intraocular pressure, it is possible to bring its level to normal with the help of treatment. Therefore, it is extremely important to control intraocular pressure during each visit to an ophthalmologist in order to start treatment on time if necessary. Only in this way can visual impairment be prevented, since that part of the visual functions that was damaged or lost as a result of increased intraocular pressure is not restored by any treatment.

Symptoms

1. Chronic glaucoma is the most common and dangerous form. Usually people affected by this form of the disease do not notice it. Signs of chronic glaucoma may include:

  • pain in the eye area;
  • decrease in visual ability;
  • the appearance of rainbow circles around light sources when looking at them.

However, the above symptoms are usually absent, and glaucoma progresses unnoticed by the patient, who does not experience any discomfort.

2. Sudden onset glaucoma occurs much less frequently. The onset of the disease can be dramatic:

  • within a few seconds, there is a sharp decrease in visual ability;
  • circles appear around light sources;
  • pain occurs;
  • nausea and vomiting appear.

3. There is also a form of glaucoma, caused by other eye diseases, such as

  • inflammatory diseases;
  • retinal disinsertion;
  • cataract.

4. Glaucoma can be congenital
If such glaucoma in a newborn is not recognized in time, the child may become blind. Early signs are photophobia and especially large "beautiful" eyes.

Diagnostics

So-called chronic glaucoma, which, as already mentioned, is the most common form of glaucoma, occurs in humans after they reach the age of 40. Manifestations of glaucoma most often appear in both eyes, rarely in one. If the disease is detected by an eye doctor, then permanent, lifelong treatment is required.
Since glaucoma is a hereditary disease, when a disease occurs in one of the family members and other relatives, they should be carefully examined for glaucoma.

Treatment

With the help of eye drops, in most cases it is possible to bring glaucoma under control. In this case, there are two fundamentally different methods of influence. The drug can either reduce the formation of intraocular fluid, or accelerate its outflow. In this case, the regularity and accuracy of the application of eye drops in accordance with the treatment plan recommended to you is of decisive importance. If you follow the doctor's instructions exactly, the intraocular pressure will drop to a normal level and damage to the eye will be prevented.

 

In certain cases, drops do not work or do not work effectively enough. Then there is a need to turn to:

  • laser treatment of the eye (argon laser trabeculoplasty) to further reduce intraocular pressure;
  • in rare cases, surgical treatment of glaucoma (fistulizing (penetrating) operations) is necessary.

 

Eye drops.
The use of eye drops is an essential part of the treatment of glaucoma. The healing effect of these drops only lasts for a certain period of time. Therefore, they need apply several times a day and with obligatory adherence to medical prescriptions. The instillation of drops should be evenly distributed over the number of hours you are awake. If, for example, you are prescribed multiple use of drops, then this means that you bury the medication before breakfast, at dinner, in the late afternoon and at bedtime. Exact adherence to the recommendations allows you to maintain the level of intraocular pressure at a normal level throughout the day.

It is not surprising if some drugs (eye drops) cause burning and sometimes headaches, especially at the initial stage of treatment. Temporary visual impairment after instillation is also not unusual. Some eye drops cause constriction of the pupil, which is responsible for regulating the flow of light into the eye. If, for some reason, the drugs prescribed for you (eye drops) cause you strong complaints, call or contact us without delay. But never do not interrupt the prescribed treatment without informing us about it!

Whether you put one or a few drops of medication into your eye doesn't really matter. In fact, a very small part of the drop has a direct therapeutic effect.

 

Can you continue to lead your usual lifestyle? 

If through the use of medications or surgery to reduce intraocular pressure to normal values, then you can live in a normal, familiar rhythm for you. This applies to both your work and other hobbies. You can read, watch TV, you do not need a special diet, you can drink tea, coffee or alcohol in normal amounts.

 

Control examination by an eye doctor.
On the day of your visit to the ophthalmologist, use your eye drops as usual. Such examinations should be carried out regularly at certain intervals.

Visual acuity is checked and eye pressure is measured using a special measuring device. These examinations are completely painless. In addition, from time to time, an examination of the fundus and measurement of visual fields will be performed using a special measuring device. At longer intervals, an examination of the outflow of fluid from the eye will be carried out, as well as an examination of the end of the optic nerve, carried out by inserting a contact lens. The results are strictly documented. These examinations are also absolutely painless. All these examinations are necessary in order to check whether the eye drops prescribed for you are working, and at what interval you should use them best.

These regular examinations are extremely important, so you should definitely attend them. Regular monitoring is the most reliable treatment for glaucoma.

Doctor of Medical Sciences
Head of the ophthalmology clinic
Professor, Doctor of Medical Sciences
Head of the ophthalmology clinic
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